According to an article in Psychology Today (May 11, 2010) by Art Markman, Ph.D, a paper talks about the production effect. People who read a list of words out loud remembered them much better than the words they read silently because they were creating the sounds.
Here's the interesting thing though: People who read all the words aloud remembered the same as those who read all of the words silently. Only the ones who read half aloud and half silently tested the highest. So what's going on?
The answer may lie in distinctiveness. We tend to remember things that stick out in our minds, the strange, unusual, different. So, the words that are spoken aloud are distinct from the silent ones, and thus remembered better. The words are both produced and heard.
Application: Say the key information aloud while you are studying. Those should stay in your memory longer.
Source: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, May 2010, MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko.
Executive functioning is defined as the "administrator and manager of a complex an busy system"--the brain. It helps students manage all types of tasks, such as organizing a trip, doing a project, or writing a report. It covers neurologically-based skills dealing with mental control and self-regulation.
It is a symptom of many larger issues: attention-deficit/hyperactivity (AD/HD), learning disability (LD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and medical disorders.
Here are different types of executive function:
Source: Late, Lost, and Unprepared, Joyce Cooper-Kahn (Ph.D) & Laurie Dietzel (Ph.D), 2008
At Surrey Centre Elementary, I participated in a 4 classroom battle (Ms. Williams, Ms. Booth, and Ms. Hern) with over 100 students, 26 teams and 26 devices (mostly iPads). It was a hoot! (I know I had to say it once.) It was definitely the most students I've been a part of (but not the most devices). In the beginning it was extremely loud with ear-piercing screaming, so we told them they could shout and yell but no screaming. It improved after that.
We played in the gym with my A/V cart and it worked out much more smoothly than I thought. Even my 30-watt speaker with a subwoofer seemed to be loud enough for the music to carry through the large space. Basically it was a plug-and-play setup, where I simply plugged in the cart to the outlet and we were ready to go with the projector, MacBook and speakers, while signed into kahoot (https://getkahoot.com/). Then students went onto kahoot.it, entered the game PIN and were signing in their team.
We kept the management simple: students would use the first letter of their teacher's last name plus a 1- or 2-word team name. Then they would add their real first names only.
I found the questions from my Brain Quest cards and chose a variety of questions from a variety of subject areas and interest at the grade level (4 and 5).
Some minor issues are that a few teams had difficulty logging in or staying logged in. Also, when we tried a second round, we encountered buffering or connectivity issues.
Overall, the kids had a great time working in groups among individual classes, but also being able to compete with fellow classmates in a much larger and competitive environment. We will most definitely be playing again. Maybe more classes next time?
Daniel H. Lee
This blog will be dedicated to sharing in three areas: happenings in my classroom and school; analysis and distillation of other educators' wealth of knowledge in various texts; insights from other disciplines and areas of expertise that relate and connect with educational practices.